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Tuesday, April 15, 2014

15th Century Chinese Architecture in Maritimes, Canada

Did China's Zheng He visit Cape Breton, Nova Scotia? 

by Joseph Trainor

When I first learned of the theory that the Chinese had visited North America (and set up a settlement on Cape Breton) almost a century before Columbus, I was a bit skeptical. The further I get into it, the more real it seems. This image below is of a model of one of Zheng He's ships, with Columbus' Santa Maria alongside as a comparison. That differential alone should make one believe it is possible that the Chinese lived in North America before Europeans did.

By the edge of the Atlantic Ocean in northern Nova Scotia, Canada, there is a peninsula on Cape Breton Island named Cape Dauphin. The cape is centred by Glooscap Mountain (aka Kelly's Mountain or Kluscap Mountain) and hosts the ruins of a settlement deemed by architect, author and amateur historian Paul Chiasson as a Chinese town from the early 1400s Ming Dynasty, which we will refer to as Fort Kluscap in this article. To learn more about Mr. Chiasson's work, visit his website www.IslandofSevenCities.com or read his book, Island of Seven Cities, where the Chinese settled when they discovered North America.

(graphic from IslandOfSevenCities.com)

If you are more interested in discovering how China was able to reach this region, read the work of Gavin Menzies, especially 1421, The year China discovered the world, and Who Discovered America; The untold history of the peopling of the Americas.

Though the most likely dating for establishment of Fort Kluscap is the 1420s or 1430s via Zheng He or one of his commanders, it is also quite conceivable that Kublai Khan's Yuan Dynasty fleet had reached Nova Scotia via the northern route that was later named the Northwest Passage. The Earth was a lot hotter before the mid-1500s, and that route could explain why the Mi'kMaq people claim the visitors said they were from the "far side of the North Pole" and also reveal how China was able to create a world map in 1418:

If the settlement pre-dates the voyages of Zheng He and Wen Zhou, then they still may have been the first Chinese to access it via the southern, Cape of Good Hope approach. A third potential route would be via circumnavigating South America and sailing north through the Caribbean.

In the late 1500s, pirate and royal lackie Martin Frobisher identified a boatload of "Chinese sailors" along the coast of Baffin island, and this was already a few decades into the Little Ice Age (circa 1550-1850), which meant the Summer window for navigation was getting smaller and smaller. He may have seen one of the final boats of the evacuation.

Putting aside your skepticism for a moment, if the walled town of Fort Kluscap was built by architects and designers, what does the shape look like to you? Viewed from the ridge above, standing on top of the mountain, looking downhill and south toward the water, is it a map of China? When one is standing on the mountain ridge above the settlement, the design would look a lot like a map of Yuan or Ming Dynasty:

Whether you look at maps of Ming Dynasty China, or modern China, the walls of the town would make a reasonable facsimile of their nation, and please remember this town was designed by the planet's premier mapmakers. If Fort Kluscap was designed to resemble a map of China, that could have two implications. One, it would be a quick way to communicate if under attack ("enemy forces massing north of Beijing") and also, if visible from sea level, could be a safety sign / symbol for Chinese sailors.

If we can surmise the northern route (through the Bering Strait, across the top of North America, then south ward along the coast of Baffin Island) was clear by the quality of the northern land mass depicted in the 1418 Ming Dynasty map, we know the planet had been fully explored by China's Yuan Dynasty long before the treasure fleets sailed under Zheng He and his commanders. Did Yuan Dynasty explorers / mapmakers found the settlement here because of the proximity to Sydney mines, or did Zheng He's fleets arrive here after sailing on Atlantic Ocean currents? Or did both occur?

This 1953 aerial clearly shows the outline of the Chinese fort, revealed after a 1952 fire burned away the forest cover. Within the baby-shaped Fort Kluscap, there may be evidence of an earlier settlement, a smaller construction still visible (green markup). 

The layout design looks similar to that of the Ming Dynasty Tombs. Have a look at these wonderful graphics:

The Xiaoling Tomb (Nanjing), above, has a design that evokes the overall feel of Fort Kluscap.

Now, look back up at the Cape Dauphin aerial. See the circle at the top right? If the original settlement (green markup) was built off the southwest edge of the circle, the landscape architecture would be almost identical to that of a major Thirteen Ming Dynasty Tombs entrance, which are all based on four quite similar designs. It may also indicate that the upper part of "the baby's" head would include tombs or at minimum be burial grounds for the exalted.

Note the Yongling Tomb above, relative to the green marked-up area further up in the Cape Dauphin aerial image. Now look at the graphic below and see that the first two designs, Xiaoling and Changling, both point north, as does the far right design, Dingling. Note that the third design is Yongling, and it points northeast, the same direction as the Fort Kluscap ruins. 

That inner gate on the inner wall serves as the "eye" or centerpiece of the design (dark red line below), and really accentuates the shape of a newborn baby or toddler, perhaps signifying to the skies the nature of sentient beings on our planet: A second inner wall is visible below the gate wall and to the left of the town site, extending north approximately where our "baby's" mouth (and/or neckline) would be:

Note the red marking at top indicates the main gate and an interior wall, while the dotted line below may be another interior wall. The above aerial photo from 1953 was taken a year after the 1952 fire which destroyed the tree cover and revealed the walls of the town. Those inclined to discredit the idea there was anything here claim that this is a firebreak built after the 1952 fire. I challenge anyone promoting this theory to google "how to build a forest firebreak" or visit wikipedia. It's all about creating a wide enough gap that flames won't jump, so a stone wall is never even considered for such an application.

With the walls in place, how would it have been viewed from the water? Could you see the town as an outline of a sleeping baby with the top of his head to the east (dawn, rising Sun) and his face to the south, both pointing to open water? Would the inner gate have been visible from afar, or only from above? It would depend on the topographical elevations, and the tree cover, and the height of the walls. If the fortified town was not intended to be hidden, the intricate design could have easily been portrayed by ensuring the southern walls were a bit shorter or on lower elevations than the northern and side walls. Is it an aerial design intended for stellar observers, or was it a nautical, "welcome home" symbol for sailors weary after long journeys? The view from sea level would tell the story of whether the town was stealthily situated or expressively designed, or both.

If viewing from a lower height makes the "baby" appear elongated and more like the shape of a grown man, then the Glooscap legend may have its roots in Fort Kluscap's unique design.

If you look at Cape Dauphin through Google satellite view today, you can see the site has become overgrown again, like in 1931. Outlines of the settlement can still be seen, if you know where to look.

Mi'kmaq First Nations legend of Glooscap Mountain

"Glooscap lay on his back, with arms outstretched and his head toward the rising sun, for 490 days and nights"

 - Mi'kmaq creation story

Is it possible the Mi'kmaq legend is connected to the hillside town? There has to be a reason why it is sacred ground, and known as Kluscap Mountain or Glooscap Mountain to the aboriginal Mi'kmaq people who live in the area. Biblical personas have turned out to be based on actual humans (www.domainofman.com), so why not New World legends? Did the magnificent giant Zheng He, commander of the largest fleet in the history of the world, personally visit or even live on Glooscap Mountain? 

Stay tuned, LOTS more to come!

Joseph Trainor works for DoHere Digital (www.DHrendering.com) and is a freelance writer, amateur hockey historian and student of standardbred horse breeding. Joe is also a perspiring songwriter and lover of inspiring architecture. His fist novel, Ari Loves Salome, was published in 2012.

Ari Loves Salome by Joseph Trainor, at Amazon.com

Further research:



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